While the identification of the church with Christ’s true body is much more than metaphor, the earthly church is not, however, to be identified with the whole Christ. Christ is fully identified with the heavenly church; the church in time is the fully realized body only as a foretaste in the Eucharist, when the heavens are momentarily opened. The modern Christian hardly needs convincing of the manifest sinfulness and unfaithfulness of the church throughout history, not least in our own day. Until Christ comes again, His body on earth is always a body under construction. We live in a construction zone, with all of the dangers that implies. The danger does not lie, however, in the identification of the church with the body of Christ, but rather in the complete identification of the earthly body with the heavenly. (William T Cavanaugh, Torture and Eucharist, p.232-233)