The distinction between politics and religion was not discovered but invented. Before the seventeenth century, politics was associated with the commonweal in a broad sense, a political and moral order which included what we would call state and society. The distinction of ecclesial and civil powers in the medieval period was a distinction not of spatial jurisdictions, nor of means, but of ends; the temporal power served the temporary ends of the civitas terrena, which was passing away. (William T Cavanaugh, Torture and Eucharist, p.5)